Various nail diseases… their causes and treatment methods

Various nail infections are usually caused by infection with some fungi, bacteria, or viruses. Nail problems, such as infections or deformities, affect the nails and cause many complications.


Nails are made of a type of protein called keratin. The nail plates cover the tips of the fingers, and are a transparent, shiny white through which the pink color of the blood can be seen. It is also surrounded by skin folds or folds on three sides, and the health of these folds is linked to the health of the nails, so the skin in them should also have a healthy appearance.

Pathological forms of nails have several manifestations and signs, the most important of which are:


1- White marks on the nails

White spots that appear on the nails are called leukonychia. These signs may be the result of symptoms of some diseases such as anemia, malaria, kidney failure, iron deficiency and other diseases.


These white marks may also appear on the nails as a result of a deficiency in some nutrients, such as potassium. The main reason behind the appearance of these signs can be diagnosed through some simple laboratory tests, such as liver function tests or kidney function tests. It can be treated by taking zinc supplements.

2- Yellowing of the nails

Nail yellowing is a common disease in which the nails turn yellow. This occurs as a result of a deficiency of some nutrients, and it appears in a large percentage of patients with arthritis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and respiratory diseases, especially sinus patients. Yellowing of the nails may also occur as a result of some genetic factors.


The best treatment for yellowing nails is vitamin E, in combination with other nutritional supplements. Some antifungal agents such as fluconazole can also be taken.

3- Blue nails

Blue nails, which are characterized by discoloration of the nails, are the most common result of a lack of oxygen. It is a sign of circulatory disorders. Other underlying causes include nail trauma, broken nails, lung disease, or Wilson’s syndrome (accumulation of copper within tissues). Also, it may be the result of extreme cold, and in this case it can be treated by warming the fingers and limbs well.


Some oral and topical medications may also cause blue nails, and these conditions can be treated with some nutritional supplements. If this condition persists for a long time, a doctor must be consulted.

4- Nail curvature

Nails that are curved inward and appear spoon-shaped are a symptom of nail problems. This condition is medically called Koilonychias. It occurs as a result of several cases:

Low number of red blood cells due to low iron levels in the body. This condition is called anemia or anemia. Increased levels of iron in the blood, which is known as Haemochromatosis. This usually happens to diabetics, cirrhosis and heart patients. Some diseases of the immune system in which the body’s cells destroy themselves, such as lupus.


Also, a deficiency of some nutrients in the body, such as vitamin A, vitamin B, calcium, and zinc, may cause nail curvature. To prevent these diseases, care must be taken to consume vitamins and iron through a balanced diet.

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