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What are bones made of?

Bones consist of a hard outer layer called the meninge. This layer consists mainly of the minerals calcium and phosphorus.

Therefore, children are always advised to drink milk because it contains these minerals to obtain strong and healthy bones.


Within the meninge layer is the solid and compact bone layer that gives the bone its solidity and strength. It contains a network of blood vessels that transport food and oxygen to the bones, in addition to transporting red blood cells made inside some bones.


The last layer of bone components is the soft or spongy bone layer.

It is worth noting that some bones in the body contain a layer called the brain, which makes red blood cells.


Bones are soft at birth, which means the bones are able to withstand bending. As a person grows older, the bone’s hardness increases and the bone’s ability to withstand bending decreases. This means that exposure to any large force resulting from a fall or any other accident can break the bone in various forms.


Types of fractures are divided into the following types:

A simple, closed, or oblique fracture, in which the bone is divided into two pieces and the bone remains inside the body.

A comminuted fracture, in which the bone is divided into more than one piece.

Spiral fracture, where the bone fracture in this case is shaped like a spiral.

Compound or open fracture, in which the broken bone comes out of the body.


A fracture is generally treated by returning the bone pieces to their original location and then placing them in a plaster cast. This allows the bone pieces to remain fixed close together to form new bone cells between them so that the bone returns to what it was originally.

The restoration process begins with blood coagulation around the affected area, and then calcium begins to deposit around the fracture area to form a swelling called a “callus” that holds the bones together. Finally, the entire fracture area heals and returns to what it was originally by the power of God Almighty.


It is worth noting that in some cases of fractures, metal plates and screws are used to hold the bones in place so that the bone can heal


Finally, it is necessary to remember the role of Arab and Muslim scholars in this field. Abu Al-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was the first to describe and design a table to restore dislocations and the ends of superimposed fractures, and he was the first to formulate a mixture for use in plaster splints.

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