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Beware of the symptoms of tuberculosis

The incidence of tuberculosis symptoms in some developed countries does not exceed a ceiling of 5 cases per 100,000 citizens, a rate that places them in the category of countries relatively free of tuberculosis.


Tuberculosis is a disease that is difficult to treat, and is considered fatal in 50% of cases.




Tuberculosis bacteria, Mycobacterium avium (mycobacterium avium) are able to enter the body’s immune system cells and reproduce at a very slow rate. These features make it very difficult for the drug treatment of tuberculosis (most antibiotics work mainly during the division period, and the ability of the drugs to penetrate cells is much less. Therefore, there is a need to combine antibiotics (2-4 types of antibiotics simultaneously) in addition to long-term treatment (half a year up to nine months). ).




TB bacteria, like many other bacteria, can develop resistance. Fortunately, the number of reported cases of resistant bacteria to tuberculosis is very low, but failure to adhere to continuous and complete treatment can form new resistances. For this reason, the system for treating symptoms of tuberculosis in some of our countries follows the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) and in coordination with Directly Observed Short-Term Treatment (DOTS), and the patient must come to the district health office at least once or twice a year. week to obtain the medications in a documented manner. Most medications for the symptoms of tuberculosis are used orally.




The symptoms of active tuberculosis are similar to other contaminants in the respiratory tract and are characterized by a general ill feeling, cough with phlegm and fever. Tuberculosis is transmitted through droplets of fluid escaped during coughing, although significant contact with the patient is required for a long period of time. Although only 3 out of 10 people who are infected with an active patient may be infected with tuberculosis, global statistics reveal that each tuberculosis patient infects about 5 people every day!




However, because, as we said, bacteria divide slowly, most people with infection will not develop active disease immediately, but rather latent disease. The intention of the latent disease is to identify the bacteria with a wall of cells built by the immune system, where the bacteria within the confines of the wall (granules) divide slowly.




The underlying disease can be diagnosed according to the medical file, for example, arrival from an area with high incidence of tuberculosis such as Eastern Europe, Africa, etc., problems with the immune system (HIV), close contact with an active patient (health personnel, family members), tuberculin skin test. (Mantoux test) or a chest image.




Mento is examined by injecting substances from the bacterial envelope under the skin, and examining the inflammatory reaction that results. If the Mento test is positive (values ​​depend on medical history), a chest x-ray should be performed to look for granulomas.




Patients with latent tuberculosis (which does not include the appearance of symptoms of tuberculosis except for positive tests and x-rays) are treated with one or two medications for a period of nine months. Even without treatment, only 5% of these patients will develop active disease within two years from the moment of infection, and an additional 5% until the end of life.




Active disease, on the other hand, requires immediate treatment with a combination of antibiotics and isolation. Which turns the patient into a non-contagious condition after two weeks of appropriate treatment (although the treatment must also continue later!!!), and therefore he is able to return to full activity.



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